Hey Angels and Alphas,
When it comes to increasing muscle strength and size, most fitness enthusiasts tend to focus solely on hypertrophy—the growth of muscle fibers.
While hypertrophy is indeed important, it’s only one piece of the puzzle. Equally crucial, but often overlooked, are the neural adaptations that contribute to gains in strength and power.
Understanding the relationship between the neural and muscular components can help optimize your training regime for faster and more sustainable gains.
The Basics of Muscle Activation
The central nervous system (CNS) plays a pivotal role in muscle activation. When you perform a lift or any kind of movement, your brain sends electrical signals through the spinal cord to motor neurons, which then stimulate muscle fibers to contract. The efficiency of this signaling mechanism directly affects your strength and ability to lift heavier weights.
One of the first adaptations you may experience when beginning a new training program is an increase in the rate at which motor neurons fire, also known as “rate coding.” This increase enables you to recruit more muscle fibers more quickly, which leads to a more powerful muscle contraction. While the muscle size may not change significantly in the early stages, the increased rate coding will make the muscles more effective, thereby increasing your strength.
Motor Unit Recruitment
Motor units are the functional entities consisting of a motor neuron and the group of muscle fibers it innervates. The CNS can recruit more motor units to generate greater force. Initially, when you perform a new exercise or lift a heavier weight, your body may not efficiently utilize all available motor units. As you continue training, your nervous system gets better at recruiting more motor units, which translates to increased strength without necessarily involving hypertrophy.
The human body is an intricate system where various muscles work in synergy to perform a movement. Inter-muscular coordination is the ability of different muscles to work together efficiently. As you train, your CNS learns to better coordinate the actions of synergistic and antagonistic muscles, leading to more effective and stronger movements.
Similarly, intra-muscular coordination refers to the coordination of muscle fibers within a single muscle. Improved intra-muscular coordination can lead to more efficient muscle contractions, as the fibers learn to contract in a more synchronized manner. This results in a more significant force output for the same amount of muscular effort.
Muscle Fiber Type Transition
Your muscles are made up of different types of fibers: Type I (slow-twitch) and Type II (fast-twitch). Type II fibers are more suited for powerful, explosive movements and are more likely to grow in size. Neural adaptations can cause a shift in the distribution of fiber types, leaning more towards the type that is more frequently recruited during your workouts. This switch allows for better performance and more substantial strength gains.
The Importance of Periodization
Knowing that both hypertrophy and neural adaptations contribute to strength gains can help in designing a more effective training program. Periodization models that alternate between focusing on hypertrophy and neural adaptations can optimize strength and muscle growth over time.
While hypertrophy is a critical aspect of muscle growth and strength gains, it’s far from the only factor at play. The neural adaptations—rate coding, motor unit recruitment, and muscular coordination—also play a significant role in how strong you get. By recognizing the importance of neural adaptations and integrating this understanding into your training regime, you can set the stage for faster, more effective, and more sustainable strength gains.